World War I Artist – Ernest Peixotto

Guest blogger Jan Hodges became interested in World War I combat art as a result of her involvement as a volunteer in a holdings maintenance project for the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) documents at the National Archives at College Park. This article is part seven of the series about World War I Art and Artists


Local Identifier: 111-SC-155398, Ernest Peixotto

Captain Ernest Peixotto reported for duty as a combat artist in April 1918 at Neufchateau. A short, slightly-built man, Peixotto was forty-nine years old, well past the prime age for a combat soldier.  After meeting up with fellow artists Wallace Morgan and Andre Smith, the three men traveled to Fontainbleau and then to a small suburb of Paris called Samois-sur-Seine.

Samois-sur-Seine was not unknown to Peixotto; he and his wife Mary had a “studio home” there that they visited often. Mary had been living in New York City when Ernest left on a troopship bound for France.  By June, she had found the means to return to France and worked at a hospital close to their home in Samois-sur-Seine.  Her presence, while comforting, was also a source of stress for Captain Peixotto, who was concerned about her safety, but even, he went about the business of sketching the war


Local Identifier 111-SC-33268: Street in ruined portion of Baccarrat, now headquarters of 42nd Division, American Expeditionary Forces. 

Peixotto often drew pictures of the ruin he saw around him.  Toward the end of April, he and Wallace Morgan went to Baccarat to sketch for a week. Peixotto captured the pathos of the civilian population in this drawing where a young vigorous American soldier passes the bowed, slow moving form of a French woman.


Local Identifier 111-SC-57021: Casemate, Camp Des Romains. The Camp des Romains forms the apex of St. Mihiel Salient and its fortresses were deemed impregnable. On the afternoon of September 12, 1918, it was bombarded and a great shell pierced the arch of this casemate, killing the commander’s orderly and three other German soldiers. It was evacuated that night. Official drawing by Captain Ernest Peixotto.

Captain Peixotto may have been slight of stature, but that didn’t make him a pushover.  On May 25th, during a visit to Soppe-le-Bas, he was accosted by an officer of the 32nd Division. In Peixotto’s own words, “I was addressed by the Lieutenant Colonel of the 126th Regiment.  He strongly citicized the policy of having captains attached to the A.E.F. as official artists.  I tried to convince him of the uses of this work, but he was offensively insistent on his own point of view stating that “that was no way to win the war.” I then told him that France and Great Britain had issued similar commissions and his reply was “that is why they are not winning the war.” Peixotto reported the exchange to his commanding officer who took the matter to a higher level and Lieutenant Colonel Waldo was chastened for his remarks.


Local Identifier 111-SC-57022: Main Street, Varennes, just after the Americans took the town, which is interesting historically as the place where Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were arrested during their flight from France.

The caption that Captain Peixotto wrote for this sketch shows his attention to history. It was at Varennes that the unfortunate Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette were taken as they tried to flee from enraged mobs in Paris.


Local Identifier 111-SC-57026:  This great mine crater, 160 feet wide, was in the main street and American engineers are here seen lowering its top and filling it in preparatory to bridging it over. 

During the war, both sides of the conflict employed men called “sappers” whose job it was to tunnel underground toward the trenches of the enemy.  Once they were underneath the trenches, they would plant explosives and detonate them. Evidence of the power of these explosions can still be seen at the Lochnagar Crater in France.

The next combat artist to be featured in this series is Andre Smith


National Archives. Still Pictures. Record Group 111-SC Army Signal Corps, WWI Combat Artists, by name.

National Archives. Textual Records. Record Group 120. American Expeditionary Forces (AEF), General Headquarters; General Staff; G-2: Censorship and Press Division. Correspondence Relating to the Eight Official Artist of the AEF, 1917 – 1919

Krass, Peter. Portrait of War: The U. S. Army’s Combat Artists and the Doughboys Experience in World War I. John Wiley and Sons.  New York. 2006.


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Gobble Gobble: America’s Thanksgiving Turkey Tradition

While it is generally understood that venison graced the table of the first Thanksgiving celebration, the idea of Pilgrims chowing down on turkey is solidly enshrined in the American imagination. The 1930 film The Turkey Business shows how the “early explorers” of America hunted and prepared wild turkeys.

The Turkey Business (33.364) begins by establishing the Thanksgiving tradition of turkey on the table, dating back to the Pilgrims.

Most of the film, however, is a practical guide to raising turkeys, from eliminating the dreaded Blackhead Disease by keeping your chickens separate from your turkeys, to how to kill and pluck the bird when it is ready for the market. The final sequence shows how “the end justifies the means” when a young boy happily enjoys a perfectly roasted turkey.

The bulk of the film educates the viewer about how to raise turkeys.

The Turkey Business was made by the United States Department of Agriculture’s Federal Extension Service. The Extension Service was established in 1914 with the Smith-Lever Act, which established a formal partnership between the USDA and the nation’s land-grant universities so that information about agriculture and home economics could be distributed to rural areas. In the early decades of the last century, films like The Turkey Business were shown to small communities around the country. Attendees received not just an evening’s entertainment, they also learned how to prevent sickness in livestock, produce better crop yields, and run a more efficient household. (For more on how the extension film shows worked, watch the 1922 USDA film Mollie of Pine Grove Vat.)

Happy Thanksgiving!

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An Update on Kodacolor Decoded

This post was written by Criss Kovac. Criss is the supervisor of the National Archives’ Motion Picture Preservation Lab.

You might remember a fun little post last summer about the Yellowstone Kodacolor discovered within a National Park Accession deposited with NARA in 2012.

The Yellowstone Kodacolor is one 453’ reel of 16mm “reversal.”  An early reversal color home movie format produced by Kodak, Kodacolor only existed for a handful of years, beginning in 1928, until it was replaced by the much more successful Kodachrome in 1935. Kodacolor appears to the human eye as black and white images, but the base side of the film is embossed with hundreds of tiny lenses (called lenticules) that look like minuscule ridges on the surface of the film base. The lenticules captured the color information from the scene while it was filmed through a color filter with red, green, and blue-violet stripes. In order to see the color the film then had to be projected back through a similar color filter. In the case of the “Yellowstone Kodacolor” we believe it may be the first color home movie footage of Yellowstone National Park.


Kodacolor is black and white to the eye, but is color when projected through the proper filter. This Kodacolor film  was converted via software with a grant from the National Film Preservation Foundation.

The National Archives worked with Video Film Solutions using a software program that was able to decode the color information hidden within Kodacolor.  The software that was developed at VFS specifically to decode the color from Kodacolor has amazing registration and reflects the scene as it was originally photographed.  Tests completed with the process showed improved results in saturation and color channel registration over traditional photochemical methods.  Now that the final rendering has been delivered we see that the results are astounding.  The colors are vibrant and the characteristics of the original Kodacolor, such as the vertical lenticular lines and slight ghosting of residual colors, within film is also retained.

You can see the fully restored film here as well as a side by side clip comparison of the before/ after.

79-HFC-16 Complete Film

Side by side comparison original and restored color.


Once again, NARA would like to thank the National Film Preservation Foundation for awarding NARA a grant for the preservation of this film.  We would also like to thank Tommy Aschenbach of Video Film Solutions for developing the software and putting in all of the time and effort to preserve the content of this film.

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The Lost Paintings – The Schloss Art Collection

A few years ago the Still Picture Branch accessioned two 19th century French gold tooled albums that contain photographs of a portion of the Schloss art collection. Regarded as one of the last great Dutch art collections to be assembled in 19th century France, the Schloss Collection was curated by internationally renowned French art collector, Adolphe Schloss and contained many paintings from Dutch and Flemish masters including Rubens, Rembrandt, and Ruysdael. It also became known as one of the best examples of acquisition for Hitler’s Führermuseum by forced sale during World War II.

After his death in 1911, the painting collection was bequeathed to Schloss’s widow, Lucie, and upon her death the 333 piece collection was jointly inherited by their four sons. At the outbreak of WWII in 1939, the family relocated the paintings to the Château de Chambon in Corrèze, France for fear of bombing. This was the last time the collection was intact before it was looted by German and French officials.

The collection was so significant that German units began searching for the collection immediately after the invasion of France, but it wasn’t until 1943 that the French Vichy officials in collaboration with German SS officers located and seized the collection. Of the 333 paintings, 262 were selected for the  Führermuseum, 49 paintings went to the Louvre, and the remaining were, unfortunately, disposed of. The Schloss heirs never received payment for the collection. To date, there are approximately 171 paintings that remain lost.

The bound volumes (the bindings were also looted) only contain photographs of the Northern Renaissance paintings that were selected for Hitler as well as those that were chosen for the Louvre. The division and list of painters can be found at the end of the second album. These albums are an example of the deluxe presentation albums that were prepared for Hitler during World War II and subsequently provide an excellent reference point for research on Dutch and Flemish painters.

The reproduction slides are available for request in the Still Picture Research Room at College Park, MD and show the 308 black-and-white images from the albums.

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Spotlight on Veterans: Navy Women in Parachute Rigger Training

There aren’t many schools that include jumping out of an airplane as part of your final exam, but that’s just what these women parachute riggers had to do in 1951. Women sailors in the Navy went through the same training as men at the Parachute Materials School at Naval Air Station Lakehurst in New Jersey.

Women sailors prepare for a parachute jump at the end of their parachute rigger training.

Women sailors prepare for a parachute jump at the end of their Navy parachute rigger training.

These graduates of the program were responsible for preparing parachutes to be used during the Korean War. Though the newsreel below refers to the women as “WAVES,” they were not members of the Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service, but permanent regular members of the United States Navy, thanks to the 1948 Women’s Armed Services Integration Act.

120,000 women served in the United States Military during the course of the Korean War, with 1,000 in theater. You can learn more about our women veterans from the website of the Women in Military Service for America Memorial and this 2011 report from the Department of Veterans Affairs.

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Before They Were Famous: Actors Who Appeared in Government Films

Robert Mitchum

To the People of the United States (1943)

More than a decade before he terrorized children as creepy preacher Harry Powell in Night of the Hunter (1955), and two years prior to his Oscar-nominated role as Lieutenant Walker in The Story of G.I. Joe (1945), Robert Mitchum played a grounded bomber crew mechanic in To the People of the United States (scene starts at 1:20 and ends at 1:59).


Noah Beery, Jr. and Robert Mitchum watch as other bomber crews depart on their missions. (Still from 90.13)

In To the People, Mitchum’s character regretfully watches as other bomber crews depart on their missions. Despite working hard to get his plane, Baby Face, ready, his crew will have to wait until a new pilot can be found because theirs has “picked up some germ.” Viewers soon learn that the “germ” in question is syphilis.

The United States Public Health Service made To the People of the United States in an effort to destigmatize syphilis testing and encourage “every man, woman, and child” to be tested. The film was intended to be shown in commercial theaters across the country. While it may seem surprising that a film dealing with such a delicate subject was made to be shown along with features such as Casablanca and Lassie Come Home, it’s important to remember that venereal diseases are historically a serious problem in times of war. During World War II, having or contracting syphilis put troops out of service. With To the People, the Public Health Service was trying to get ahead of the problem by testing and treating the general population so there would be less of the disease out there for troops to contract.

To the People of the United States didn’t make it to general audiences in 1943, however. The Catholic League of Decency protested the film’s release, warning that it would lead to pornographic material being shown in theaters. The film was ultimately distributed to state and local health departments in mid-1944.

Jack Lemmon

Once Too Often (1950)

Today, Jack Lemmon is known for his eight Oscar nominations and a decades-long film career, but years before true fame materialized, the Hollywood legend starred in a military training film. While not Lemmon’s very first film job—that honor goes to an uncredited appearance as a plasterer in The Lady Takes a SailorOnce Too Often was his first starring role. Lemmon played Mike, a Private Snafu-like catastrophe of a soldier who has ten days leave and demonstrates ten different ways to be careless with one’s safety, from accepting rides from drunk drivers to falling asleep with a lit cigarette.

The Army first proposed the film in early 1949, in response to startling statistics that showed that, in the previous calendar year, one-third of lost time accidents and fully two-thirds of fatal accidents involving military personnel occurred while in off-duty activities. The film was intended to be shown to all military personnel and was later cleared for public release.

The Army Signal Corps paid Lemmon $155 a week ($1530.35 in 2015 dollars) for his work on the picture. Production took six weeks, well beyond the 26 days originally planned. The job was a major one for the struggling actor. Lemmon commented on the film in a 1993 New York Times article, saying, “Somehow I got a reading, and to my amazement I got the part. It was the first thing of substance I got, outside of small parts in summer stock.”

We might hypothesize that the wide use of Once Too Often contributed to making Jack Lemmon a familiar face, so that when he turned up a few years later in the charming It Should Happen to You (1954), audiences were ready to accept him as a star. Of course, a lot of that was likely due to Jack Lemmon being Jack Lemmon.

Mike Farrell

The Year of 53 Weeks (1966)

Before he joined television’s M*A*S*H as Captain B.J. Hunnicutt, Mike Farrell appeared as Captain Kendall in The Year of 53 Weeks. The film follows Air Force ROTC graduate Lieutenant Bob Blake as he completes a year-long supersonic pilot training program. Farrell’s Capt. Kendall monitors Bob’s progress throughout, keeping an eye on Bob while he completes his training assignments.

The Year of 53 Weeks serves as an introduction to the Vietnam-era Undergraduate Pilot Training program. The program consisted of a rigorous slate of study and training that was designed to retain only the best of the best. As the war went on, the program was condensed to 48 weeks.

We recently contacted Mike Farrell to ask about his experience working on the Air Force training film. Like Jack Lemmon, at the time he made The Year of 53 Weeks, Farrell was a young actor who “was still looking for any kind of work and it was a big deal to get the job.” Further, Farrell said that working on the film gave him “valuable experience; there were nice people attached who were very complimentary about the work we did. For a guy trying to make his way in a very tough business it was a terrific experience.”

Farrell said that he made a contact on the set and believes he may have worked on another government film as a result. That film may have been KC-135 Cargo Loading. We have been unable to locate the film in our holdings, but we will keep looking!

Many thanks to Mike Farrell, who graciously answered our questions about the production of The Year of 53 Weeks. Thanks also to Tanya Goldman, who gave us the tip about Jack Lemmon’s appearance in Once Too Often. Production files for Once Too Often and The Year of 53 Weeks are available at Archives II in College Park, Maryland. Records of the Public Health Service and To the People of the United States are held at the National Archives at Atlanta. Details for this post came from John Parascandola’s article “Syphilis at the Cinema: Medicine and Morals in VD Films of the U.S. Public Health Service in World War II,” found in Medicine’s Moving Pictures: Medicine, Health, and Bodies in American Film and Television.

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Circus Clowns and Masks: 13 Images from the Stacks

This post was written in collaboration with Beth Fortson.

We are approaching the end of October and fall is in full bloom.  Trees are changing colors, pumpkin-flavored foods are on the shelves, and people are swapping their short-sleeves for winter coats.  But amidst this lovely season, a more frightening day is lurking around the corner. This day, of course, is Halloween.

The Still Picture Branch has many images of cute animals, lovely families, and festive celebrations.  This post, however,  highlights some of our more peculiar records; photos that are a little less gleeful, and a bit more ghoulish.

The first group of photographs comes from the Works Progress Administration’s, Federal Theatre Project (FTP).  Founded in 1935, this New Deal program intended to improve unemployment in the entertainment industry.  Actors, dancers, writers, and costume designers all benefited from the FTP.  As you’ll see below, another group of performers benefited as well. Clowns. The WPA Federal Theatre Circus Unit in New York City employed 65 well-loved clowns.

Of course, those were not the only hidden faces we found within our Hollinger boxes! In addition to clowns, two of the images below show individuals wearing hand-carved masks that were used to drive out evil spirits and winter weather. The masks continue to be used during traditional Carnival celebrations that take place in southern Bavaria signaling the arrival of spring.

The next group of photos comes from the Paris Bureau of the New York Times.  This series covers a considerable amount of political, military, and cultural events in the first half of the 20th century.  It is one of our most widely used series, and possibly one of our spookiest.

With their origins as pranksters, clowns attempt to be silly and fun, but today many folks see clowns as odd, dark, or downright scary. So, which side of the fence are you on? Do you have a soft spot for clowns or do they make your skin crawl? Let us know in the comments!

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WWI Artist – Wallace Morgan

Guest blogger Jan Hodges became interested in World War I combat art as a result of her involvement as a volunteer in a holdings maintenance project for American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) documents at the National Archives at College Park. This article is part six of the series about World War I Art and Artists.

Captain Wallace Morgan reported for duty in France at the end of March 191. A few days later, he along with fellow combat artists Peixotto and J. Andre Smith received permission to scout out buildings that could be a suitable studio for the artists to complete their work. The three men searched Paris and Fontainebleau (a few miles outside Paris) but eventually selected Neufchateau where they located a studio that would suit their needs.  Having taken care of that need,  they turned their attention to sketching.


Local Identifier: 111 SC 86625: Captain Wallace Morgan, one of the eight official artists appointed by the War Department. April 1918

 111SC -33276

 Local Identifier 111 SC 33276/ 14393: The Alert.  Badonviller, France. Drawn by Captain Wallace Morgan. June 10, 1918

Morgan and the other artists received permission to start visiting divisions in the American sector.  In late April, Morgan witnessed life in the trenches and drew this sketch of soldiers scanning the sky after receiving an alert to expect enemy action. Denuded and broken trees feature prominently in the sketch, evidence of the destruction that been going on since 1914. To get this perspective, he may have entered the trench.


Local Identifier 111 SC 57067:  U.S. Medical Officers Attending Wounded German Prisoners near Montilly. Drawings by American Military Artists. Captain Wallace Morgan

Captain Morgan visited a first aid station during the battle for St. Mihiel. Almost as soon as the American Army entered the war, they captured German prisoners and gave first aid to those who were in need.


Local Identifier 111 SC 57068:  Machine Gun Outfit Moving Forward near Esnes during Artillery Attack. Drawings by American Military Artists. Captain Wallace Morgan

The greatest American effort of the Great War was launched almost as soon as St. Mihiel was wrapped up in late September.  On September 26 the mass of American strength was deployed in  an all-out offensive to rid the region of the Germans.  The combat artists followed the army divisions through the Meuse-Argonne area. Morgan sketched this during the early part of the offensive.


 Local Identifier 111 SC 31704/ 31091: Americans Mopping up in Cierges. Drawing by Captain Morgan Wallace, E. R. C. Signal Corps Photo Laboratory, Vincennes, Seine, France.

The Meuse Argonne offensive was brutal, bloody and laborious. Even when the Germans withdrew from a town, it was not always abandoned.  Some towns, such as Cierges could only be considered an allied victory after every house and building was searched.  Snipers were evicted by grenades or hand to hand combat.  Morgan sketched this picture of American doughboys cautiously clearing the way through Cierges.

The next combat artist to be featured in this series will be Ernest Peixotto.


National Archives. Still Pictures. Record Group 111-SC Army Signal Corps, WWI Combat Artists, by name.

National Archives, Textual Records, Record Group120, Records of the American Expeditionary Forces (World War 1), Entry 224, Correspondence Relating to the eight Official Artists of the AEF, 1917-19

Krass, Peter. Portrait of War: The U. S. Army’s Combat Artists and the Doughboys Experience in World War I. John Wiley and Sons.  New York. 2006.

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Play Ball!

This post was written in collaboration with Carla Simms.

In honor of the Major League Baseball playoffs, the Cartographic and Architectural Branch has pulled together a few records featuring the national past-time.  We hope you enjoy this small tribute.

First up, an aerial view dated July 17, 1941, showing the original Busch Stadium, formerly known as Sportsmans Park, along North Grand Boulevard in St. Louis, MO.  The St. Louis Cardinals played here, just south of Fairground Park, until 1966 when they moved to a new Busch Stadium in downtown St. Louis.  The original stadium shown here has since been demolished, but there is now a baseball field right next to the stadium’s​ old location.

RG 145 Aerial Photographs NAID 305870

Whether professional or amateur, the game leaves an unmistakable footprint on the landscape, as in this 1927 photograph of  Washington DC.  Calvin and Grace Coolidge would have passed no fewer than 11 ball fields on an evening stroll from the White House to the Washington Monument!

RG 328 DC 1927 199 print

RG 328 Aerial Photography of Washington DC 1927, print 199 NAID 305955

Baseball is everywhere in aerial photography covering the U.S. In this 1949 coverage of Nobles County Minnesota, you can even see the lights around the ball park in the town of Wilmont, population just 473 in the 1950 federal census.

RG 145 Aerial Photography of the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service, 1934 – 1954 NAID 305870

Of course, there are also times when you can’t play out of doors, and a spin through the patent drawings shows that baseball loving inventors had plenty of ideas on how to fill that time.

RG 241 Drawing for a “Base Ball Game Apparatus,” Utility patent 863758, NAID 305888

We only hold the drawings here in the Cartographic Branch, but the rules of play can be found in the US Patent & Trademark Office, Patent Full Text and Image Database.

Patent drawings also document the desire to improve the game, and perhaps gain fame and fortune in the process. In this quest, some inventors were more successful than others.

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RG 241 Utility Patent Drawings, 1837 – 1911 NAID 305888

Finally, we’ll go out on one last Major League Park for tonight’s game at Wrigley Field, pictured here in 1952, in a scan downloaded from the US Geological Survey’s EarthExplorer website.

RG 57 Aerial Photography, 1935 – 1966 NAID 305471

World Series Post Script

By popular demand, we offer these two additional photos, downloaded from the US Geological Survey’s EarthExplorer website: Municipal Stadium in 1955 and Shea Stadium in 1966. It’s closing time Friday here at the Archives, so no fancy close-ups this time– click the image to view and download full size files and enjoy!

For more information on how to research aerial photography, see the earlier post Snapshots in Time of the American Landscape or contact reference staff at :

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Playing Fetch with Pilot Whales: The Navy’s Project Deep Ops

Back in June, we published a post about animals in the military. It featured war dogs, bat and pigeon bombs, and monkey saboteurs. We thought we’d covered everything, but almost as soon as that post was published, we digitized a film for our research room that highlights torpedo-retrieving whales.

One of these whales is Ahab.

Ahab, a 5,500-pound killer whale, recovers a piece of inert ordnance using an acoustic pinger to guide him during the Deep Ops project. The whale is also equipped with a grabber device and a hydrazine system to allow the object to float easily to the surface.

Ahab, a 5,500-pound killer whale, recovers a piece of inert ordnance using an acoustic pinger to guide him during the Deep Ops project. The whale is also equipped with a grabber device and a hydrazine system to allow the object to float easily to the surface. NAID 6394385.

Ahab, along with another orca named Ishmael and two pilot whales named Pip* and Morgan, was part of the US Navy’s Project Deep Ops. In 1969 the Naval Undersea Center in Hawaii carried out this research program “designed to determine first, the maximum deep dive capabilities of trained whales wearing harnesses and carrying hardware and, second, the feasibility of using these animals to mark and recover pingered objects from the open ocean.”

The Navy was looking for more reliable ways to recover lost experimental and exercise ordnance from its ocean test ranges. Objects at a depth less than 300 feet could sometimes be recovered by human divers, while unmanned submersibles could reach depths of 2,500 feet. However, the use of humans or submersibles depended on mild sea and weather conditions. It was believed that whales might be able to dive up to 3,000 feet to retrieve objects in much rougher conditions.

NAID 6394387 and NAID 6394386

Project Deep Ops concluded that whales could be trained to assist in Naval retrieval tasks, even in the open ocean (although Ishmael did escape during an open ocean exercise and was never seen again). Some of the whales were successfully able “to carry and deploy a hydrazine lift recovery system to a 1000-ft depth.” The report recommends continuing the project with a focus on pilot whales, rather than orcas.

The Navy completed A Technical Film Report on Project Deep Ops in 1972 to provide an overview of the project activities. The pilot whale Morgan is the star of the film, demonstrating his training activities and open ocean retrieval of objects.

*Pip died of a lung infection in 1970 after ten months of training.

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